דו"ח הוועדה הרוסית שפתחה את קברי האחים ובורות הירי ביוני 1944 (באנגלית)
`ACT' ARCHIVE DOCUMENT Date: June 21-28, 1944 Report of Soviet Special State Commission conducting Archive/File: places/ukraine/chortkiv/commission-report.440621-28 investigation of crimes committed by the German Fascists onthe territory of the city Chortkiv and Region, Western Ukraine, Ukr. SSR. The Commission consists of the following persons: W. H.Druginina; S. I. Turkevich, H. 1. Brytskoho, H. I. Cheverda, A. P. Prokopova, V. A. Krupko, T. S. Litvineriko, K. A. Kozacheriko, P. E. Chermlsonova, Mateush Shuster,Stanislava Ivanovna, Lutsyk Petro I_ I. B. Shorr, M.M. Goldberg, J. U. Bolansky, K. M. Alsenberg, S. T. Kuzmlna, P. J. Chervivsky, M. G. Chursanov. The exhumation of the victims of German Fascism in the city of Chortkiv and Region, Ukr. SSR., started June 21, 1944, and lasted till July 28, 1944. The city Chortkiv wasoccupied by the Nazis in July 194 1, and liberated by the Red Army in March 28, 1944. The Special Commission established the following: Mass "Actions" and shooting Last-Modified: 1998/07/17 of Jews, Poles, Ukrainians, teachers, doctors, lawyers, intelligentsia, party-activists, old people and children, took place duringthe Nazi occupation. Life started to get intolerable. The extermination of the Jews were called "Actions," which ended in mass shooting of the victims. There were threemass "Actions" in Chortkiv. The first "Action" took place in 1941. The Nazis ordered the creation of the Jewish Ghetto, in which around 8,000 Jews were forced to reside. The conditions inside the Ghetto were terrible. The Jews wereforced to wear the Star of David. Many were taken out for hard physical labor outside. It was forbidden to leave the Ghetto or bring in food, under the threat of death. The victims received a little watery soup with a piece of surrogate bread. Many died of starvation and diseases. The second anti-Je 115 Jews were working on a farm-estate. One day they were surrounded by a group ofG ermans and Ukrainian (Nationalist) policemen. A real bestial pogrom wasunderway. Some wish "Action" took place in the year 1943. As a result of this mass massacre, not many Jews were left in the city. Some tried to hide in underground bunkers or in the forest. Aroundwere shot in the field, others were massacred with shovels, iron bars, sticks, etc. Many others were caught in the street, in the houses of the village.The dead and injured were loaded on horse-wagons and thrown into an empty water well. Groups of 50 or 100 Jews were taken out of the Ghetto, (allegedly for work), outside the city where they were shot. Some individuals managed to escape from such"Actions." Among them were: Rosa Shnermlib, born in 1925, Bernknopf Josef, born in 1923, Berkovich Zoya and a few others. The German Fascist beasts threw the dead, injured and children, alive, intthe pits and buried them together.According to eyewitness accounts in the city of Chortkiv, German Nazis, and Ukrainian Nationalists, threw Jewish children down from balconies (third and fourth floors) into the streets. The dead and injured victims were later thrown into the River Scret. Those few who remained alive were hiding in underground bunkers, in the forest, with Gentiles, or with false papers. Mass executions ofjews, Poles, Soviet Activists, etc., took place in the prison courtyard, on the former airfield, on the old and new Jewish Cemeteries, in the Black Forest, in the Villages: Yagolnitsa, Swydova, Mylowe, Marelovka, Sosulivka, Rossoxan, in the Galileya Forest, and other places. The special Investigative Commission ordered the opening of the pits and excavation of the bodies. The following was established: 1. 16 Pits (different sizes) were found on the former airfield, located Westward of the City Chortkiv, near a highway leading to the City Chernovtsi, Ukr. SSR. Pit No. 1 was 3 x 2 x 1.5 meters. It contained 27 bodies. Most were naked, shot in the back of the head. Pit No. 2, 4 x 3 Meters, contained 22 bodies, in a decomposing stage, men and women. Many had their hands tied with telephone cable.Most of the victims were shot in the head. Pit No. 3, 5 x 7 x 2.5 Meters. Most of the -victims wore old, torn clothing, men and women -around 40 bodies, skulls smashed, hands tied in the back. Pit No. 4, 25 bodies. Some wore military-like uniforms. Hands tied in the back. Pit No. 5, 29 bodies, Size 6 x 5 x 1.7 Meters. Pit No. 6, 4 x 5 x 1.5 Meters. Women-19, men-2, children-4. All naked. Decomposing bodies. Pit No. 7, 4 x 3 x 1.75 Meters, 15 bodies, naked, shot in back of the head. Pit No. 8, 5 x 7 x 1.75 Meters, men 9, women 19, children 8, total 36 bodies, shot in back of the head. Pit No. 9, 10 bodies. Pits No. 10, 11, 12, approximately as above. Pits: 13, 14, 15, 16 – not opened. OLD JEWISH CEMETERY, Westward City Chortkiv: Total, 5 pits. Around 45 bodies. Shot in back of the head. NEW JEWISH CEMETERY, Location — Eastward City Chortkiv. Pits: 3. Bodies-450. Victims: Men, women and children. All shot.Location: Prison courtyard. Bodies — Men. Many with documents, names, Passport numbers. Also some women. Names: Wasserman Sofia, Broncle Israel, Schecter Meyer, Shoter Mojsej, Wolyster David, Wolf Yakubovich, Abram Broder, Berkenfeld Herman, Elner, and others, all shot. Location: Black Forest, Eastward, City Chortkiv. Two pits.Total bodies: 140 men and women. Shot with machine guns.Smashed skulls. Thrown in Water Well. Location: Village Miliontse, Chortkiv Region. Well-hole depth: 8 M. Victims working on farm. All Jews. Men and women. Bodies – 123. Village Yagolnitsa. Two large pits. Total bodies 950. Most shot in the head. Men, women and children. Village Swyclova, Chortkiv Region. Two pits were found, sizes: 10 x 4 x 2 Meters, and 3.5 x 1.5 x 2 Meters. They contained 18 bodies, men and women, in ecomposition stage. Some completely naked, some others in underwear. Accordingto eyewitness accounts, around 350-400 people were buried in this area. Village Marelovka. Chortkiv Region, Ukr. SSR: Two pits were found, sizes 2 x 2.5 meters. Most were shot. Some victim's heads were smashed. A total of 55 bodies were counted. Village Ulashkovtse, on Farm Estate. One pit, size 15 x 15 x 1, bodies of men and women, some were shot, some others were butchered with knives and other instruments. 17 bodies exhumed. According to eyewitness accounts, around 185people lie buried in this area. Forest Galileya: In the dense part of the forest, in a bunker-like hideout, size 5 x 2 x 2 meters, 15 bodies were found, all women. All naked, scattered in different positions. All in decomposition stage. All were shot in back of the head, most with damaged skulls. As it looked, the underground bunker served as a hideout for the victims. The Commission concluded that in the above mentioned places (and also other pits, not excavated yet), more than 13,000 bodies of innocent citizens of the City of Chortkiv, and Chortkiv Region, were found.
The Special Investigation Commission considers the following persons guilty of committing crimes: 1. Hildeman Captain, Chief Gestapo 2. Pekman Captain, Chief Gestapo 3. Stefan Chief Prison 4. Maierhofer Chief Prison 5. Rozenhof Chief Prison (?) 6. Paal Commander, Jewish Camp 7. Tumanek Commander, Jewish Camp
Gestapo Men:1. Kelner, 2. Richter, Lt., 3. Frank, 4. Keltswich, 5.Breitschneider, 6. Hagerman
7. Rimpler, 8. Ruks, 9.Radke, 10. Kuchman, 11. Tsich, 12. Meier, 13. Basso, 14. Eisel, 15. Martin, 16. Miller, 17. Felde, 18. Kimperg, 19. Keller, 20. Lutsel, 21. Knispel, 22. Kaminsky, 23. Ferus, 24. Grocholsky, 25. Shudert, 26. Hubert, 27. Otto, 28. Gross, 29. Urban, 30. Frynd. Traitors of the Fatherland. (Ukrainian Nationalists):1. Mula Ivan, 2. Mulyk, 3. Roshko, 4. Mykechans, 5. Hushulak, 6. Starovsky, 7. Skab, 8. Skorevych, 9. Ivasiv, 10. Moroz, 11. Podlubny, 12. Gnatkivsky, 13. Slobodyan,14. Leschinsky, 15. Kachmanyuk, 16. Krchak, 17. Melnychenko, 18. Tyll.
Commission Members: Doctors: Shorr, Goldberg signatures
Citizens, City Chortkiv: Wolanski, Eisenberg.Military: MajorJustice Dept. (signature) Lt. M/S (illegible) (signature) Priest, Greek Catholic Church (signature)W. Druzhynin, Turevich, Brytski, Cheverda, Prokopov, Krupko, Litvynenko, vstygnewa, Kozachenko, Cheremysinov, Shuter, Lutsyk. Head of' Extraordinary State Commission:
Investigating Fascist crimes: KuzhminMedical Expert, Major M/S: Chervinsky Medical Expert,
Major M/S: Chursanov (stamp signatures)
Courtesy: Soviet State Archives. Ukr. SSR." (Sabrin, pp. 264-8)Work CitedSabrin, B.F., Ed. Alliance for Murder: The Nazi-Ukrainian Nationalist Partnership in Genocide. New York: Sarpedon, 1991